NEWS

Since the 1934 Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act, U.S. policy on trade agreements has been based on the concept of reciprocity – that is, the United States would make concessions roughly equivalent to those of its trading partners. (However, as has already been said, there were two exceptions. First, the United States deliberately opened its market after World War II more than its trading partners requested to facilitate economic recovery in Europe and Japan. Second, the U.S. approach and the multilateral trade rules of the GATT/WTO allow developing countries to open up less markets than industrialized countries.) In addition to the fact that Doha should be a development round, negotiators had to raise serious concerns from developing countries that the TRIPS AGREEMENT prevents many countries from receiving the medicines needed to deal with the AIDS crisis. Patented antiretroviral drugs that help AIDS patients are extremely expensive and, for most people in developing countries, where income is often less than $1 a day, is far out of reach. Although the TRIPS agreement authorizes compulsory licenses in the event of a national emergency (which is clearly the AIDS epidemic for many African countries), developed countries have insisted that developing countries should not use this provision for the licensing of low-cost generic drugs. In addition, TRIPS has only authorized compulsory licenses for the production of drugs for the domestic market, and many African countries facing an AIDS epidemic are far too small to support a generic industry. A second fundamental approach to GATT is national treatment (Article 3), whereby members must, after being imported into a Member State, treat products in the same way as they are awarded to a « similar » domestic product.

This means, for example, that members cannot collect discriminatory import taxes after clearing the border. Barriers to trade in services are fundamentally different from those in goods. The entire trade in goods crosses borders in a very visible way, and all governments, including those in the least developed countries, have customs officers at border crossings to collect tariffs on imported goods. Most trade control measures are established at the border, including tariffs, quotas and import certificates. The third new edition of the Uruguay Round was the protection of intellectual property such as patents, copyrights, trade secrets and trademarks. The original GATT did not address intellectual property, but intellectual property protection rules were developed in other international organizations such as the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO). These rules covered things like the definition of patents, trademarks and copyrights; Mutual recognition of intellectual property developed in other signatory states; The duration of patent, trademark and copyright protection; And so on. Developing countries have also concluded numerous free trade agreements among themselves, among others.

B MERCOSUR (official members are Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela) and the East African Community (Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and Uganda). Today, major U.S. negotiations for new agreements with 11 other Asia and Pacific countries in the so-called Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and with the European Union are being negotiated on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. [3] In addition to the air services agreement, the Tokyo Round has also covered multilateral agreements on beef and dairy products, although they are no longer in force. As a result, the Negotiators of the Uruguay Round have developed the Trade-Related Investment Measures (TRIM) agreement, which essentially specifies Articles III and XI of the GATT, including a brief clear list of practices prohibited by these articles.